# Configuration

The **‘config’** is a python dictionary that is passed to the Simulation
class to configure simulation parameters.

It is usually specified as follows:

```
config = {
'geometry': 'circ',
'time-limit': 1,
'time-step': 1,
# ...
}
sim = Simulation(config=config, ...)
```

This section describes the parameters that can be passed
to **‘config’** and their default values.

The runas.py file contains the actual configuration parameters that were used
to run the simulation (including the default values not explicitely specified in config).
The file name can be specified as
`sim = Simulation(runas_filename='filename.py', ...)`

.
If runas_filename is an empty string, this file is not generated.

## Geometry

`'geometry': 'circ'`

(‘circ’|’3d’)Geometry of the problem being simulated.

**‘circ’**- cylindrical geometry with axial symmetry.**‘3d’**- 3d cartesian geometry.

## Hardware

`'processing-unit-type': 'cpu'`

(‘cpu’|’gpu’)**‘cpu’**- central processor unit.**‘gpu’**- graphics processing unit. Avalible for 3d geometry only.

## Grid parameters

`'window-width': 5.0`

(float)Transverse size of the window from the central axis to boundary. The window width is adjusted to the closest “good” value to ensure fft performance for 3d.

`'transverse-step': 0.05`

(float)Transverse grid step: dr for cylindrical geometry and dx=dy for 3d.

`'window-length': 15.0`

(float)Window length along \(\xi\)-axis.

`'xi-step': 0.05`

(float)Grid step along \(\xi\)-axis.

`'time-limit': 200.5`

(float)Beam evolution time.

`'time-step': 25`

(float)Time step size for beam evolution, \(\Delta t\). The plasma response will be calculated for each \(z=c \Delta t\) up to the

**‘time-limit’**, where \(c\) is speed of light.

## Parameters of plasma model

`'plasma-particles-per-cell': 10`

(int)The number of plasma particles per one cell. It must be equal to the square of an integer in 3d, otherwise it will be corrected to the nearest suitable value (to 9 by default).

`'ion-model': 'mobile'`

**(‘mobile’|’background’)****‘mobile’**- ions are simulated as macroparticles.**‘background’**- ions are stationary and affect the wave as a background charge distribution.

`'ion-mass': 1836`

(float)Mass of plasma ions in units of electron mass.

## Plasma density profile

`'plasma-shape': 'legacy'`

**(‘legacy’|function(z, x, y))****function**- python function(z, x, y) -> density_weights, where z is position of plasma layer to be calculated (in the laboratory frame), x and y are arrays of initial transverse positions of plasma macroparticles. To specify an arbitrary density distribution, the charges and masses of all macroparticles that corresponds to the uniform plasma (\(n_p = 1\)) are multiplied by the density_weights. This function will be called each time the plasma is initialized. It is assumed that x = r and y = 0 in the cylindrical geometry.Example of an arbitrary density function:

import numpy as np def foo(z, x, y): """ Exponential growth from 0 to 1 along z with a transverse Gaussian distribution. """ z0, r0 = 100, 5 # profile parameters r = np.sqrt(x**2 + y**2) density_weights = np.exp(-r**2 / r0**2 / 2) # transverse weights density_weights *= (1 - np.exp(-z / z0)) # longitudinal weights return density_weights

Note

If you want to simulate with GPU, use

`cupy`

instead of`numpy`

.**‘legacy’**- the plasma profile is specified as described later in this subsection.

`'plasma-width': 2`

(float)Main parameter of the initial transverse plasma density distributions, \(r_p\).

`'plasma-width-2': 0`

(float)Auxiliary parameter of the initial transverse plasma density distributions, \(r_{p2}\).

`'plasma-density-2': 0.5`

(float)Auxiliary parameter of the initial transverse plasma density distributions, \(n_{r2}\).

`'plasma-rshape': 1`

(multiple choice)The initial transverse profile \(n_r(x,y)\) of the plasma density.

**In the case of a transverse profile independent of z (`int` or `string`):****1**or**‘uniform’**: Uniform (\(n_r = 1\)).**2**or**‘stepwise’**: Uniform (\(n_r = 1\)) up to \(r_p\). If \(r_{p2} < r_p\), then zero at \(r > r_p\), otherwise linear decrease from 1 to 0 for \(r_p < r < r_{p2}\) and zero at \(r > r_{p2}\).**3**or**‘channel’**: \(n_r = n_{r2}\) up to \(r_p\). If \(r_{p2} < r_p\), then uniform (\(n_r = 1\)) at \(r > r_p\), otherwise linear increases from \(n_{r2}\) to 1 for \(r_p < r < r_{p2}\) and \(n_r = 1\) at \(r > r_{p2}\).**4**or**‘parabolic-channel’**: \(n_r = n_{r2} (1 + r^2/r_p^2)\) as long as \(n_r < 1\), otherwise \(n_r = 1\).**5**or**‘gaussian’**: \(n_r = \exp(-r^2/2r_p^2)\), zero at \(r > 5r_p\).

**In case of z-dependent transverse profile (`string`):**The transverse profile is specified in consecutive segments, one segment per line. Each line consists of a segment length (float), radial profile type as described above (int or string) and three profile parameters \(r_p, r_{p2}, n_{p2}\) (float). The plasma density distribution is assumed to be

**uniform**after passing all segments.Example:

config = { # ... 'plasma-rshape': ''' 100 1 0 0 0 300 stepwise 1 2 0.5 100 3 2 0 0.3 ''' # ... }

In this example, the transverse profile of plasma density is:

**‘uniform’**over \(100\, c/\omega_p\);**‘stepwise’**with \(n_r = 1\) for \(r < 1\), linear decrease from 1 to 0 for \(1 < r < 2\) and \(n_r = 0\) for \(r > 2\) over \(300\, c/\omega_p\);**‘channel’**with \(n_r = 0.3\) for \(r < 2\) and \(n_r = 1\) for \(r > 2\) over \(100\, c/\omega_p\).

`'plasma-zshape': ''`

(string)This option defines a longitudinal plasma density profile \(n_z(z)\). The plasma density \(n_p = n_r(x,y) n_z(z)\). The longitudinal profile is specified in consecutive segments, one segment per line. Each line consists of a segment length (float), density at the beginning of the segment (float), a letter defining the segment shape (only

**‘L’**avalible for the linear dependence) and density at the end of the segment (float). In the case of empty string or after passing all segments, \(n_z = 1\).Example:

config = { # ... 'plasma-zshape': ''' 100 0 L 1.2 300 1.2 L 1.2 100 1.2 L 0 ''' # ... }

Here, the plasma density increases linearly from 0 to 1.2 over \(100\, c/\omega_p\), then remains constant over \(300\, c/\omega_p\) and decreases from 1.2 to 0 over \(100\, c/\omega_p\).

Note

It is not recommended to specify \(n_p > 1\), as the plasma solver may work unstably. Therefore, the unit plasma density \(n_0\) is usually the highest unperturbed plasma density in the simulated region.

## Parameters of beam model

`'beam-substepping-energy': 2`

(flaot)Substepping energy for the beam (\(W_{ss}\)) is the threshold of reducing the time step for beam particles. For each beam particle, the minimal integer \(l\) is found that meets the condition \(2^{2l}\sqrt{m_b^2 + p_{bz}^2} > W_{ss}\), and the reduced time step \(dt'\) =

**‘time-step’**/ \(2^l\) is then determined. Plasma fields are calculated with periodicity**‘time-step’**, and each beam particle is propagating in these fields with its own time step \(dt'\). This feature is particularly useful if low energy beam particles are present in the system, which otherwise would require undesirable reduction of the main**‘time-step’**.

## Advanced features

`'declustering-enabled': False`

(bool)Switches the declustering of plasma electrons on. This feature is described in https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2401.11924

The following four parameters are used for 3d declustering. In 2d they are ignored.

`'declustering-averaging': 3`

(int)The sigma of the kernel in Gaussian Fourier filter used for averaging particle displacement inhomogeneities, measured in grid steps.

`'declustering-force': 0.3`

(float)The coefficient (\(K\)) characterizing the restoring force.

`'declustering-damping': 0.1`

(float)The coefficient (\(\kappa\)) characterizing the damping force.

`'declustering-limit': 1e-3`

(float)The maximum noise displacement of particles (\(D_0\)). Particles with larger noise displacements are not affected by declustering. (To Do: in units of

`transverse-step`

).